Hardness is a characteristic of a material, not a fundamental physical property. It is defined as the resistance to indentation, and it is determined by measuring the permanent depth of the indentation. More simply put, when using a fixed force (load) and a given indenter, the smaller the indentation, the harder the material. Indentation hardness value is obtained by measuring the depth or the area of the indentation using one of over 12 different test methods depends on its suitability and purpose of the test.  Hardness testing is widely used in a multitude of industries and plays particular significance in structural, aerospace, automotive, quality control, failure analysis, and many other forms of manufacturing.